Tuesday, 8 August 2017

On my spelling and transliteration of Min, Hakka and Teochew | 关于我写而拼写闽语、客话、潮州话的方法

Min

The spelling I use for Min Nan (Hokkien) is what I believe the Taiwan Dictionary of Commonly Used Min Nan Words suggests. There are only, as far as I can remember right now, two notes to be made about this claim:
  • The word 下昏暗 | e-hng-àm | tonight can be contracted, as reported by the aforementioned Dictionary, to ing-àm; no distinct spelling is proposed on the Dictionary for the contraction; however, I would rather prefer to mark the contraction in writing, otherwise the 1-syllable-1-character match is broken for this contraction; some time ago, I isolated two possible spellings: 映暗 and 暎暗; that is, phonetic loans; I believe I wanted, however, a mouth radical on the second option, i.e. 𠸄; this is what I'm going to opt for, though I can't find confirmation that this character is actually used with the pronunciation ying in Mandarin, but the right side is evidently a phonetic element giving the desired pronunciation; hence, we'll have 𠸄暗 | ing-àm | tonight;
  • The word 啥人 | siánn-lâng | who can be contracted, as per the Dictionary, to siáng or siâng; neither of these contractions has a distinct proposed spelling; what could we choose for such a spelling? Wiktionary suggests 谁 for this and a number of other "who"-words, but I'd rather avoid ambiguity and perhaps suggest the sound via the character; I tried a phono-semantic compound with a xiang + person radical, but to no avail; so I'll settle for 晌, which according to Wiktionary has a Min pronunciation sióng/siáng and a Mandarin sound shǎng;
  • There is this word tshuā, meaning "carry, bear", which seems to have been represented by an image of 毛 with an extra heart radical 灬 at the bottom by the Dictionary at some point, but the image wouldn't load (or wasn't there) yesterday (Sep 24 2017); that character is impossible to even retrieve on the Wiktionary, because I cannot see it unless it's one of those three squares, so I decided to just substitute it with plain 毛;
  • According to here (see also the comments to the answer), any time two vowels clash, a glottal stop is inserted between them; for example, 地位 and 客气话 are teʔui and kheh-khi ʔ ue (ʔ representing the glottal stop); since this is so consistent, I will not bother representing it in transliteration; in fact, this is a manifestation of the fact that the zero initial is actually a glottal stop in Min;
  • Some loanwords are given with just the pronunciation (with tones described by contours as opposed to the usual diacritics) and their etymology. For those, I come up with characters case by case, and use diacritics that give the correspoding contours when Sandhi is taken into account. For example, "guitar" is "gi51 ta11", which means the single syllables would match gí and ta, but with Sandhi occurring I need to make the first one gì, so I get gì-ta, and for the characters I borrow the Mandarin ones 吉他;
  • The third-person pronoun, in, should be written 𪜶, but this character is not correctly displayed on some systems (it appears as a full square on my mobile and as a square with numbers on my computer – it should be 亻因), and doesn't seem inputtable via my keyboard, so I adopt the alternate form 怹 reported on the related Wiktionary entry.
The transliteration is taken straight off the Dictionary, and is thus (I think) Tâi-lô.


Hakka | 客话

The situation here is more complex, because I have a very scarce Dictionary called Taiwan Dictionary of Commonly Used Hakka Words (henceforth hakkadict), a far richer Dictionary which I'll call Minhakka because of its URL, and the Hakka Verse Facebook Group (and related groups like Write Hakka), and each has its own spelling conventions. I adopt (mostly) the Hakka Verse conventions. In that respect, I add below a few spelling items, and will add more as I post more songs.
  • Hakka is the only Chinese dialect I know of that distinguishes between pairs of "strictly possessive adjective" vs. "personal pronoun that can become p.a. via a particle"; those pairs are nga/ngâi, nya/nyî, kia/kî, listed with p.a./p.p order; I choose to write those as 吾/涯, 若/汝 and 其/佢 respectively; Minhakka agrees only on 佢, whereas it proposes nothing for the p.a.'s and gives 我 and 尔 for the p.p.'s; the other dictionary gives 吾/𠊎 (the latter being a composition of 亻 and 厓 which may not appear on some devices and is not inputtable via keyboard AFAIK), 若/你 and 厥/佢; for the p.p.'s I follow Hakka Verse standards, for the p.a.'s, not distinguished in HV, I use my creativity; in particular, I adopt a Classical Chinese character (吾) for "my" (I originally decided to change the radical of 涯 to 雅, so some old posts may have that old choice), I use HV's 若, I use 其, an old (Classical Chinese) third person pronoun (or p.a.?);
  • For the adverb àn, corresponding to Mandarin 很 and English very, I use 恁, as per HV standards; can't tell if hakkadict agrees or not, Minhakka proposes nothing;
  • There is a particle nái, which is a contraction of ná-vùi | 哪位 | where; it is not this nái, however, I'm told; more like this one, but with another tone; I see now that in the song I found this in it might actually be "lài" as reported by Minhakka; in any case, the given character is uninputtable and I cannot find it on Wiktionary either, so I'll have to change it; I looked for something with sound nai, but to no avail; so I turned to lai, and opted for 唻: mouth radical, and phonetic element (Mandarin pronunciation required); it is found on Minhakka, but it's essentially a musical note called lôi, so it will basically never occur in a song;
  • Tshê, all, I write as Minhakka suggests;
  • The possessive particle kài I spell, as per HV standards, as 个; in Simplified, this is ambiguous, as it also represents the classifier kài, but said classifier is rare (AFAIK at least, basically never seen it in Hakka), so the ambiguity is no big deal; Minhakka proposes the same traditional character 個 for both; I propose the HV standard, i.e. that in traditional we use 個 for the classifier and 个 for the particle;
  • A word corresponding to "what" is mak-kài, where kài is basically the above particle, and is thus spelt accordingly, whereas mak is some kind of interrogative word, which Minhakka proposes to spell 乜, possibly taking from Cantonese where 乜 is an interrogative particle, and I instead spell as 么, as per HV standards; hence, mak-kài is 么个;
  • The above mak-kài can be contracted to mài; I would have liked to use 吆 for mài, but it is already used for yau | shout, so I'll just conform to HV and use 么;
  • The particle tó is spelt (AFAICT) 倒 according to Minhakka, but I prefer HV's standard 着, because this particle appears to be basically an exact equivalent of Min tio̍h, which twblg.dict.edu.tw suggests to spell 着;
  • The present-continuous particle tén (which I cannot find on Minhakka, except maybe in this one usage example) I spell 等, which, per HV standards, is also the spelling of the plural sign tén and the verb tén | to wait, to which Minhakka agrees;
  • I spell the plural sign teu as 兜; Minhakka has a different opinion, proposing no character for this and reserving 兜 for a different homophonous word;
  • There is also a particle tèu, which I spell 到 as per HV standards, and cannot find in Minhakka;
  • To disambiguate và and voi, two synonyms, I spell them 话 and 譮 respectively; Minhakka apparently uses these two characters interchangeably for both words;
  • According to the founder of HV, there exists a Hakka word nám | to hug, which he suggests to spell 攬; I take this as my standard, being however aware that Minhakka gives 攬 | lám or làm | grasp, seize, hold;
  • Until this post gives me better alternatives, I will be spelling và | even as 哇, nái | where as stated in point 3, and nau | hate as 恼;
  • The negative element m is often spelt 唔; I abide to HV standards and use 毋 instead;
  • shit (Hakka word, not English) is similar to 曾, meaning "ever"; Minhakka does not acknowledge this, and uses 识 for something else; I will use 识 for this word, as per hakkadict's entry for 從來毋識 (which simplifies to 从来毋识);
  • I was told there is a word "ca bun", spelt 遮穩, which means "hold tight"; Minhakka has 遮 | ca | conceal and 穩 | vún | steady, firm; so the vún part is spot-on, but the ca part sounds off; I would really like to use 抓 for that, but Hakka has it as tsáu… or does it? Minhakka says tsáu, but the other dictionary says sa24 or za24, and the latter pronunciation approximates tsâ, I think, so fudge that tsáu Minhakka thing and I write 抓穩 | tsâ-vún;
  • The word "how", or nyòng-pan, or nyòng-pen with no characters in Minhakka's take, I will write in HV standard spelling, i.e. as 样板 (hoping the pan character is right); actually, I think the standards have changed to 仰般, and I might conform as I do checkups; in fact, the "pan" might have always been that one;
  • Hakka has lî, meaning "this", liáu, a perfect tense marker, and lí, which I only ever saw in places where it can mean both "this (much)" and "perfect tense marker"; following HV, I spell lî as 里, following Minhakka, I spell liáu as 了, and I'd like to merge the characters for lí, except I can't, so I go for 哩 | lí;
  • The word "koi | easy" I spell as per HV standards, i.e. as 该, though I don't like the ambiguity with "ought to" this generates; I simply have no better option; Mihakka provides nothing and hakkadict doesn't have the word;
  • I spell "tshiàng | only" as 净, as per Minhakka;
  • I spell "lia | this" 裡 to disambiguate it from 里 | lî | this; so 里 | lî | this, 哩 | lí | perfect aspect marker, 裡 | lia | this; note that the tone of the last one is as of now unknown to me;
  • Hakka has three negations: "m/ng", meaning simply "not", "mô", meaning "hasn't + participle" or "didn't" – that is, a past negation) and also being a question particle like Chinese "ma", and also meaning "there isn't" –, and finally "mâng", meaing "not yet"; I spell them 毋, 无 and 吂 respectively, the first two conforming to HV standards, and the last one under the suggestion of hakkadict.
  • The word "kwún-ship", meaning "to wet", is reported without character suggestions on Minhakka; following this suggestion, which remarks that "kwún" is reported as "to fix, to arrange" and "ship" as "wet (adj.)", I choose to write this word as 管湿.

It should however be noted that I have songs in at least 4 different Hakkas, maybe 6. The sure varieties are:
  1. The Hoi-luk-fung (海陆丰) Hakka of Anton Xie's and Mirvin Lim's songs, which was thus termed by Anton itself;
  2. The Hakka of Zhang Shaolin's song, which is probably (according to Anton) Fui-yong (惠阳) Hakka;
  3. The Sixian (四县) Hakka of the single song 胆大大 | Tám thài-thài;
  4. The Southern Sixian (南四县) Hakka of the songs 哥系月亮妹系星 | Ko hè ngiȧt-yòng mòi hè sen and 匍背 | phù-poi, the latter being more specifically Meinong Hakka;
For the first two, I follow the transliteration scheme of Minhakka, with the following modifications:
  • The light entering (阳入) tone is represented with a dot above the vowel instead of a vertical line, because the latter is not inputtable via my keyboard while the former is;
  • ch and chh are written as c and ch respectively, partly because of Hakka Verse conventions, partly because I simply loathe the combination "chh";
  • Finals like -iong are stressed on the actual nucleus (in this case "o") rather than the glide (in this case "i"), because if the syllable is pronounced you do not stress the glide but the nucleus, so putting the diacritic on the glide makes no sense to me;
  • The u with umlaut below is substituted by a double i, because the former isn't inputable with my keyboard;

It should be noted that the distinction of the pairs s-sh, ts-c, tsh-ch can be fuzzy. In particular, Hoi-luk-fung doesn't have it at all, turning sh to s, ts to c and tsh to ch consistently, which brings to no distinction even in spelling on Hakka Verse. Zhang Shaolin has a distinction, but it sometimes doesn't match Minhakka. I give Minhakka's take in any case. For the Sixian variant, I pull my info off Wiktionary mostly, filling in the blanks with hakkadict. For the Southern Sixian, I take the info off hakkadict, with my own choice of diacritics, that is the grave accent indicates the contour 31, the macron below the contour 11, the circumflex the contour 24, the macron above the contour 55, nothing the contour 2 (checked tone), the dot above the contour 5 (checked tone 2).

Then we have the unidentified variants of Frengky Cun and "Lily", though I believe they both may actually be Hoi-luk-fung too, because they neutralize the distinction mentioned above and pronounce "y" as "j", just like Anton Xie's Hakka.


As for Teochew, the transliteration I use is an adaptation of Hokkien Tai-lo to Teochew, with "j" used for /dz/ (instead of the alveolo-palatal it represents in Tai-lo), and "er" used for /ɯ/ (Tai-lo would probably use ir and reserve er for the schwa), and "o" representing /o/ (whereas Hokkien has /ɤ/ = "o" and /ɔ/ = "oo"). My reference is mogher (in my notation "bó-gér" – err, WTF is that m there for?), which uses Peng'im, so I first convert the sounds, then add tone marks according to the Wikipedia page on Peng'im. The spelling is either mogher or something mutuated from twblg Min, or maybe even stuff from WhatTCSay, a Teochew dictionary app which uses a weird transliteration so I might have trouble converting that.
闽语

我写闽语(福建语)的方法就是我相信台湾闽南语常用词辞典建议的。我现在记得的,关于这个主张只得写两个主意:
  • 「下昏暗 | e-hng-àm | 今晚」这句话,就像上述的词典说,可能合音念做「ing-àm」;辞典给合音不建议别的写法;我却真宁愿用字分清这种合音,反之“一个音节一个字”这种“理法”关于这种合音违反;我以前孤立了两种可能好的写法:「映暗」、「暎暗」;就是借字;我却觉得我在第二种写法曾要有口部首,就是要用「𠸄」;我要选择这种写法,虽然找不到确认这个字在普通话用念作「ying」的资料,但是右边显然是选择来建议发音的;所以,会写「𠸄暗 | ing-àm | 今晚」;
  • 「啥人 | siánn-lâng | 谁」这句话,就像词典说,可能合音念做「siáng」或「siâng」;辞典给这两种合音不建议别的写法;我们可以选择哪种写法?维基词典建议把这句和很多别的跟“谁”一样一丝的剧写成「谁」,我却宁愿避免这种双关语而或许用字建议发音;尝试了寻找从「xiang」字和单立人字旁创造的形声字,但是都是徒劳无功的;所以会用「晌」,在维基词典看来闽语念「sióng/siáng」、普通话念「shǎng」的字。
  • 有一个“tshuā“,意思是”带“,仿佛以前在辞典里有底部带”灬“部首的”毛“字的照片,但昨天(2017年9月24号)那个照片却没负载或者没有了;那个字在维基词典找不到了,或者是变成方形的三字中之一;所以决定了写成简单的“毛”字;
  • 根据这张网页(也参观回答下的论文),每次有两个元音彼此相邻,就有一个声门塞音加在中间;因为这是这么一贯地发生的,我不会麻烦拼写它;例如,“地位”和“客气话”说成teʔui和kheh-khi ʔ ue,ʔ代表声门塞音;这事实上就是代表闽语种的“zero声母”就是声门塞因;
  • 有些贷款的话在辞典里只有发音和词源,而且不用拼音符号代表声调,就用数字代表色调轮廓;例如,“吉他”只是gi51 ta11;这两个音节用拼音符号是gí和ta,但是因为有连续变掉我就写gì-ta;汉字我个案来选择;所以例如gi51 ta11我接着普通话的字而写成“吉他 | gì-ta";
  • 第三人称代词,“in”,应该写成“𪜶”,但这个字却在一些设备上不正确地现出(在我的手机变成充满的平方,电脑上变成里面有数字的平方–应该是亻因)而且我的键盘仿佛输不入它,我就来用“怹“这个在维基词典的文章被报告的替代形式。
拼写的方法就是词典的,所以(我觉得)是Tâi-lô(台湾闽南语罗马字拼音方案).


客话

这里的情况更复杂,因为我有好缺乏的词典,名叫台湾客家话常用词辞典(从此叫做“hakkadict”),非常更丰富的词典,叫成Minhakka因为他的“URL”,而且客家天:Hakka:Verse那个Facebook社团(而且跟它有相关的社团,例如Write Hakka),而各个有自己的写法。我(大部分)采用Hakka Verse的写法。关于这来说,我在下面加上一些写法,而会张贴更多首歌就加上更多。
  • Hakka is the only Chinese dialect I know of that distinguishes between pairs of "strictly possessive adjective" vs. "personal pronoun that can become p.a. via a particle"; those pairs are nga/ngâi, nya/nyî, kia/kî, listed with p.a./p.p order; I choose to write those as 吾/涯, 若/汝 and 其/佢 respectively; Minhakka agrees only on 佢, whereas it proposes nothing for the p.a.'s and gives 我 and 尔 for the p.p.'s; the other dictionary gives 吾/𠊎 (the latter being a composition of 亻 and 厓 which may not appear on some devices and is not inputtable via keyboard AFAIK), 若/你 and 厥/佢; for the p.p.'s I follow Hakka Verse standards, for the p.a.'s, not distinguished in HV, I use my creativity; in particular, I adopt a Classical Chinese character (吾) for "my" (I originally decided to change the radical of 涯 to 雅, so some old posts may have that old choice), I use HV's 若, I use 其, an old (Classical Chinese) third person pronoun (or p.a.?);
  • For the adverb àn, corresponding to Mandarin 很 and English very, I use 恁, as per HV standards; can't tell if hakkadict agrees or not, Minhakka proposes nothing;
  • There is a particle nái, which is a contraction of ná-vùi | 哪位 | where; it is not this nái, however, I'm told; more like this one, but with another tone; I see now that in the song I found this in it might actually be "lài" as reported by Minhakka; in any case, the given character is uninputtable and I cannot find it on Wiktionary either, so I'll have to change it; I looked for something with sound nai, but to no avail; so I turned to lai, and opted for 唻: mouth radical, and phonetic element (Mandarin pronunciation required); it is found on Minhakka, but it's essentially a musical note called lôi, so it will basically never occur in a song;
  • Tshê,全,我跟Minhakka建议的一样写;
  • The possessive particle kài I spell, as per HV standards, as 个; in Simplified, this is ambiguous, as it also represents the classifier kài, but said classifier is rare (AFAIK at least, basically never seen it in Hakka), so the ambiguity is no big deal; Minhakka proposes the same traditional character 個 for both; I propose the HV standard, i.e. that in traditional we use 個 for the classifier and 个 for the particle;
  • A word corresponding to "what" is mak-kài, where kài is basically the above particle, and is thus spelt accordingly, whereas mak is some kind of interrogative word, which Minhakka proposes to spell 乜, possibly taking from Cantonese where 乜 is an interrogative particle, and I instead spell as 么, as per HV standards; hence, mak-kài is 么个;
  • The above mak-kài can be contracted to mài; I would have liked to use 吆 for mài, but it is already used for yau | shout, so I'll just conform to HV and use 么;
  • The particle tó is spelt (AFAICT) 倒 according to Minhakka, but I prefer HV's standard 着, because this particle appears to be basically an exact equivalent of Min tio̍h, which twblg.dict.edu.tw suggests to spell 着;
  • The present-continuous particle tén (which I cannot find on Minhakka, except maybe in this one usage example) I spell 等, which, per HV standards, is also the spelling of the plural sign tén and the verb tén | to wait, to which Minhakka agrees;
  • I spell the plural sign teu as 兜; Minhakka has a different opinion, proposing no character for this and reserving 兜 for a different homophonous word;
  • There is also a particle tèu, which I spell 到 as per HV standards, and cannot find in Minhakka;
  • To disambiguate và and voi, two synonyms, I spell them 话 and 譮 respectively; Minhakka apparently uses these two characters interchangeably for both words;
  • According to the founder of HV, there exists a Hakka word nám | to hug, which he suggests to spell 攬; I take this as my standard, being however aware that Minhakka gives 攬 | lám or làm | grasp, seize, hold;
  • Until this post gives me better alternatives, I will be spelling và | even as 哇, nái | where as stated in point 3, and nau | hate as 恼;
  • The negative element m is often spelt 唔; I abide to HV standards and use 毋 instead;
  • shit (Hakka word, not English) is similar to 曾, meaning "ever"; Minhakka does not acknowledge this, and uses 识 for something else; I will use 识 for this word, as per hakkadict's entry for 從來毋識 (which simplifies to 从来毋识);
  • I was told there is a word "ca bun", spelt 遮穩, which means "hold tight"; Minhakka has 遮 | ca | conceal and 穩 | vún | steady, firm; so the vún part is spot-on, but the ca part sounds off; I would really like to use 抓 for that, but Hakka has it as tsáu… or does it? Minhakka says tsáu, but the other dictionary says sa24 or za24, and the latter pronunciation approximates tsâ, I think, so fudge that tsáu Minhakka thing and I write 抓穩 | tsâ-vún;
  • The word "how", or nyòng-pan, or nyòng-pen with no characters in Minhakka's take, I will write in HV standard spelling, i.e. as 样板 (hoping the pan character is right); actually, I think the standards have changed to 仰般, and I might conform as I do checkups; in fact, the "pan" might have always been that one;
  • Hakka has lî, meaning "this", liáu, a perfect tense marker, and lí, which I only ever saw in places where it can mean both "this (much)" and "perfect tense marker"; following HV, I spell lî as 里, following Minhakka, I spell liáu as 了, and I'd like to merge the characters for lí, except I can't, so I go for 哩 | lí;
  • The word "koi | easy" I spell as per HV standards, i.e. as 该, though I don't like the ambiguity with "ought to" this generates; I simply have no better option; Mihakka provides nothing and hakkadict doesn't have the word;
  • I spell "tshiàng | only" as 净, as per Minhakka;
  • I spell "lia | this" 裡 to disambiguate it from 里 | lî | this; so 里 | lî | this, 哩 | lí | perfect aspect marker, 裡 | lia | this; note that the tone of the last one is as of now unknown to me;
  • Hakka has three negations: "m/ng", meaning simply "not", "mô", meaning "hasn't + participle" or "didn't" – that is, a past negation) and also being a question particle like Chinese "ma", and also meaning "there isn't" –, and finally "mâng", meaing "not yet"; I spell them 毋, 无 and 吂 respectively, the first two conforming to HV standards, and the last one under the suggestion of hakkadict.
  • The word "kwún-ship", meaning "to wet", is reported without character suggestions on Minhakka; following this suggestion, which remarks that "kwún" is reported as "to fix, to arrange" and "ship" as "wet (adj.)", I choose to write this word as 管湿.


It should however be noted that I have songs in at least 4 different Hakkas, maybe 6. The sure varieties are:
  1. The Hoi-luk-fung (海陆丰) Hakka of Anton Xie's and Mirvin Lim's songs, which was thus termed by Anton itself;
  2. The Hakka of Zhang Shaolin's song, which is probably (according to Anton) Fui-yong (惠阳) Hakka;
  3. The Sixian (四县) Hakka of the single song 胆大大 | Tám thài-thài;
  4. The Southern Sixian (南四县) Hakka of the songs 哥系月亮妹系星 | Ko hè ngiȧt-yòng mòi hè sen and 匍背 | phù-poi, the latter being more specifically Meinong Hakka;
For the first two, I follow the transliteration scheme of Minhakka, with the following modifications:
  • The light entering (阳入) tone is represented with a dot above the vowel instead of a vertical line, because the latter is not inputtable via my keyboard while the former is;
  • ch and chh are written as c and ch respectively, partly because of Hakka Verse conventions, partly because I simply loathe the combination "chh";
  • Finals like -iong are stressed on the actual nucleus (in this case "o") rather than the glide (in this case "i"), because if the syllable is pronounced you do not stress the glide but the nucleus, so putting the diacritic on the glide makes no sense to me;
  • The u with umlaut below is substituted by a double i, because the former isn't inputable with my keyboard;

It should be noted that the distinction of the pairs s-sh, ts-c, tsh-ch can be fuzzy. In particular, Hoi-luk-fung doesn't have it at all, turning sh to s, ts to c and tsh to ch consistently, which brings to no distinction even in spelling on Hakka Verse. Zhang Shaolin has a distinction, but it sometimes doesn't match Minhakka. I give Minhakka's take in any case. For the Sixian variant, I pull my info off Wiktionary mostly, filling in the blanks with hakkadict. For the Southern Sixian, I take the info off hakkadict, with my own choice of diacritics, that is the grave accent indicates the contour 31, the macron below the contour 11, the circumflex the contour 24, the macron above the contour 55, nothing the contour 2 (checked tone), the dot above the contour 5 (checked tone 2).

Then we have the unidentified variants of Frengky Cun and "Lily", though I believe they both may actually be Hoi-luk-fung too, because they neutralize the distinction mentioned above and pronounce "y" as "j", just like Anton Xie's Hakka.


总有一天会翻译;
今天却没有时间。


对于潮州话来说,我使用的拼法是福建话台罗对潮州的改编,用"j"代表/dz/(台罗永“j“表示/dʑ/)、“er”代表/ɯ/(台罗永"ir"表示/ɯ/而用"er"拼写/ə/)、“o”代表/o/(福建话里/ɤ/=“o”、/ɔ/=“oo”)。 我的参考是mogher(按照我的符号“bó-gér” – 恩,那个m字在那儿做什么鸟啊?),它使用“Peng'im”,所以我首先转换声音,然后根据“Peng'im”的维基百科页面添加声调表。 我用的字就是mogher建议的,或者从twblg的福建话进口的,或者WhatTCSay潮州话辞典应用程式建议的。那本词典使用一种奇怪的拼写方法,所以我可能有问题转换。

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