Tuesday, 26 December 2017

O Atthis!

Today we have a wonderful poem by Sappho, whose source is a nightmarishly holey and faint papyrus which I deciphered long ago and recorded all the notes to into a total of ~4 hours of audio, which I have no time to trancribe, and that is why the critical note is gonna be a spoiler with an extract from my Paracritical Note (if you know enough Italian and dare to venture into that thing, you are welcome to do so, but don't complain to me about any messiness), and the critical notation will stick to my file. [The note has since been put in at the end.] It is a shame that I have to do this, because the text here is a big mess, and Edmonds contributed to messing it up with creative amendations and sloppy critical notation, but it would be more of a shame not to post it. The meter is stanzas of three lines, with scheme cr+gl || gl || phal (cretic foot + glyconian line, glyconian line, phalecian hendecasyllabic), and is kept in Latin and rendered as –u– –u–uu–u– || –u–uu–u– || –u–uu–u–u–u in Italian and English, with –u– rhyming with the two –u–uu–u– and the phalecians rhyming between consecutive stanzas. Some of the glyconians have anaclasis in the original, which I took advantage of by allowing –u–u–uu– in Italian and English. Also, the first 2-3 stanzas were translated to German too. So let's get to it!

[Ἄτθι, σοὶ κἄμ’ Ἀνακτορία φίλα
πηλόροισ' ἐνὶ] Σάρδ̤ε[σιν
ναίει, πό]λλα̣κ̣ι τ̣υίδε [νῶν ἔχοισα      3

ὤς πο[τ' ἐ]ζώομεν β̣εβά̣ω̣ς̣ [ἔχεν
σὲ̤ θέᾳ̣ ϝ̣ικ̣έ̣λαν ἀρι-
γνώτᾳ, σᾷ̤ δ̤ μάλιστ̣' ἔχαιρε μόλπᾳ·      6

νῦν δὲ Λύδαισ̣ι̣ν ἐ̤‹μ›πρ̤έ̤πεται γυνα̤ί̣-
κεσσ̤ι̣ν̣ ὤς ποτ' ἀε̣λίω̣
δύντος ἀ βροδοδάκ̤τυλος ‹σελάννα›,      9

πάν̣τα πε‹ρ›ρέχοισ' ἄστρα, φάος δ' ἐπί-
σχει θά̣λασσαν π' ἀλμύραν
ἴσως καὶ πολυανθέμοις ἀρούραι̤ς,      12

ἀ δ' ‹ἐ›έρσα κάλα κέχυται, τεθά-
λαισι δ βρόδα κ̣ἄπαλ' ν-
θρυσκ̣α καὶ μελίλ̣ωτος ἀνθ̣ε̣μ̣ώδης·      15

πόλλα δὲ ζαφο‹ί›ταισ', ἀγάνας̤ πι-
μνάσθεισ' Ἄτθιδος, ἰμέ̤ρῳ
λ̣έπτα̣ν ‹π›οι φρένα̣, κ[ῆ]ρ̣ ἄσᾳ βόρητα̣ι,      18

κῆθι̣ δ̣' ἔ̤λ̤θην ἄμμ' ὄ̤ξ[υ] βόη· τ‹ὰ› δ' οὐ
νῶν γ̤' ἄ[π]υστα νὺξ πολύω̣ς̤
γαρύε̣ι δ[ι'] ἄλος π[όρω]ν τὸ μέσσον.      21

[Ε]ὔ̤μ̤α̤ρ[ες μ]ν̣ ο̣ὐ̣κ̣ ἄμμι θέαι̤σ̣ι̤ μόρ-
φαν ἐπή̤[ρατ]ον ἐξίσω-
σθ̣', ἀι σὺ [καὶ χ]ρ̣ό‹'› ἔχησθ' Ἀ[δ]ωνίδηον,      24

] . . . το[ . . . . ] . ρατι
μαλ[      δι' αἴ]θερος
καὶ δ[.]μ̣[      ]ος Ἀφροδίτα      27

καμ̣ . [      ] νέκταρ ἔχευ' ἀπὺ
χρυσί̣ας̣ . [      ]λ̣ο̣ΐ̣α̣
. . . ἀ]π' ἀπούρ[      ] . χέρσ̣ι̣ Π̣εί̣θω      30

]θ+ . . +η̣σενη
πόλλ]ακις
] . . . . . ν . . αι      33

] ς τὸ Γεραίσ̤τιο̤ν̤
] . ν φίλαι
ἄπ]υ̣σ̣τον οὐδενο[

ἐς ἴ]ερον ἴξο[μ      33
………………
………………


[Attide, molto lungi da me͜ e da te
Cara͜ Anattorïa or è,
’N] Sard[i, sp]esso si volge qui͜ in pensare,

Memore della vita passata: te
C[ert]o pari͜ a de͜a nota le’
Riteneva,͜ e gioiva ’n tuo cantare.

Splende or tra le Lidïe donne͜ ancor,
Come quando il sole d’or
Cala, e la luna rosate dita

Supera ogni stella,͜ e sua luce dà
Al salato mar di colà,
E ugualmente͜ a campagna͜ assa͜i fiorita,

Bella po͜i la rugiada vi brilla su͜i
Molli͜ antrischi e le rose, e su͜i
Meliloti che ivi sono͜ in fiore;

Molto͜ a le’, mentre vaga, ben memore
Della dolce su͜a Attide,
Brama͜ il tenero petto strugge,͜ e ’l cuore

Pena,͜ e ch’i’ no͜i andiam g[rida forte]; ’l che
N[o]to͜ è: con aure plurime
[Notte]͜ il sa,͜ e ce lo dic[e d’oltre͜ il mare],

[F]a[c]i[le] esser pari alle dè͜e non è
Per be[llez]za per no͜i, [pur] se
[C]orpo ha͜i per beltà͜ ad A[do]n compare,

[–u– xx–uu–ux
xx– attraverso͜ il c]iel
E [x–uu–u] Afrodite

[–u– xx] nettare po͜i versò
D’a͜ure͜a [–uu–ux
xx –] colle man’ la Persu͜asi͜one

[–u– xx–uu–u]ò
[xx–uu spe]sso [x
xx–uu–u–x

–u– xx–] al Gerestïo
[xx–uu] care [x
xx] nulla d’ignoto [–u–x]

[–u– x al t]empïo giung[erò]
………………
………………
[Ātthĭ, tē mēqu’ Ănāctŏrĭāst ămāt’
ābsēns lōng’ ĭbĭ,] Sārdĭ[bŭs,
Sēd s]ǣp’ hūc ĕă [vērtĭt] īndĕ [mēntĕm],

Nōs ŭtī [v]īvēbāmŭs: [hăbēbăt] e͞a
Cērtē tē sĭmĭlēm dĕǣ
Nōtǣ, māxŭmă lǣt’ ĕrāt cănēntĕ.

Nūncquĕ Lȳdīs īn mūljĕrĭbūs mĭcăt,
Ūtquĕ, sōl cŭm ōccĭdĕrĭt,
Lūnă tūm dĭgĭtīs rŏsīs crĕātīs

Lūcĕm ōmn’ āstrō prǣ quĭdĕm ēst, ĕăm
Quām sālī dăt ĕ’ ātquĕ ǣ-
quālĕ flōrĭbŭ’ plūrĭbūs quŏqu’ āgrīs,

Ātquĕ rōs pūlchr’ īllīc sŭpĕrēst rŏsīs,
Mōllĭbūs sŭpĕrēstquĕ ān-
thrȳscīs ēt mĕlĭlōt’ hăbēntĕ flōră;

Mūltăqu’ ērrāns, dūlcīs mĕmŏr Ātthĭdĭs
Tĕnēllǣ, sĭbĭ stūdĭō
Mōlli͞a pēctŏră ēstquĕ c[ō]rquĕ pœ̄nā,

Ātqu’ ĕō māgn[ē] ‹clāmăt› ĕāmŭ’ nōs,
N[ō]vĭmūsqu’ ĕă: nō‹x› pĕr ‹a͞u›-
rēs mūltās pĕlăgūs pĕ[r]i͞ens rĕdīcĭt,

[F]ācĭl’ ha͞u‹d› ēst nōbīs sĭmĭlēs dĕā-
bŭs ămā[bĭlĕ]m ēssĕ fōrm’,
[Ēt]sī [c]ōrpŭs hăbēs t’ Ă[d]ōnĭdēŭm,

[–u– xx–uu–ux
x] pĕr [ǣ]thĕrĕm [–ux
xx –uu–u] Āphrŏdītē

[–u–] nēctār fūdĭt [u–u] ēx
A͜urĕā [uu–ux
xx] mānĭbŭs [–u] Pērsŭāsi͜o

[–u– xx–uu–ux
xx–uu sǣ]pĕ [x
xx–uu–u–u–x

[–u– xx] ādquĕ Gĕrǣstĭŭm
Cărǣ [–uu–ux]
[Īg]nōtī nĭhĭl [–u–u–x]

[T]ēmpl’ [ăd]ībō [x–uu–ux]
…………………
…………………


[Atthis, dear Anactorïa far from here,
Thee and me, in] Sardi[s, I hear,
Lives now, of]ten [remember] us she might

And how we use[d to l]ive: she did surely thee
Equal [hold] to known Goddess, thee
Singing she used to hear with most delight

Now shines she ’mong the Lydïan maids, as we
When the sun has gone down do see
Rosy-fingerèd moon a-shining bright,

With more light than the stars around her give might
Th’ briny sea she doth set alight,
And the country which many flow’rs delight,

Poured is dew pretty there, and there flower do
Tender anthrysks and roses too,
And the melilot with its many͜ a flower.

Wandering tender Atthis remembering,
In her tender breast oft cravìng
Her devours, and i’ th’ h[ea]rt of pain a shower,

Lou[d] shouts she that we go there to her; which we
Well do k[n]ow, for the night, the sea
Cro[ssing], tells what her many͜ an ear descries,

[H]ar[d] it is f’r us a Goddess’s beauty,͜ in this
World to equal, A[do]nis’s
Be[au]ty thou[gh] with your own ’bove others flies,

[–u– xx–uu–ux
xx–uu through the s]ky
And [x–uu–u] Aphrodite

[–u– xx] nectar out she did pour
From a golden [u–ux
xx–] with her hands Persuasion [–

–u– xx–uu–u] did
[xx–uu o]ft [ux
xx–uu–u–u–

–u– xx] to the Gerestæum
[xx–uu] dear [u–
xx] nothing [unk]nown [u–u–

–u–] I [sh]all come [to the t]emple [x]
………………
………………


[Atthi, dir    liebẹ Anactorïa, und mir,
Wohnt in] Sard[is jętzt, fern aus hier,
Abėr o]ft sie sein [Dę]nkėn hiėr bėtriebt,

Und bėdęnkt    wie wir [w]ohnten: wie dann, sie dęnkt,
Dich ein' Göttin, und Zeit sie schenkt
Nach dein Singėn, das sie, wie dann, ja liebt.


Critical Note

The timeline here appears simple. I mean, there is only one source, P.Berol. 9722 fol. 5, right? Wrong. If you look closely, you will see there are two fragments joined. And I'm not saying the beginnings of lines beyond l. 21 are on a separate fragment: looking closely you'll see a few ever so small "isthmuses" connecting that to the upper part. Nope, it's the endings of those lines that are separate, and only joined by a perfect margin match and sellotape. Indeed, that part seems to have been published in Lobel's edition of Sappho, which means after Edmonds', and indeed Edmonds, apart from cutting his poem short at precisely l. 21, seems to have been missing l. 21's end, given the reading he gives is incompatible with the papyrus. That must have come from trying bloody hard to read letters he just did not have in the mess that this papyrus is. The source is discussed in the transcriptions post, which gives the following text:

] Σαρδ̤ . [
πό]λλα̣κ̣ι τ̣υίδε [
ὤς πο[τ' ἐ]ζώομεν β̣εβά̣ω̣ς̣ [
σὲ̤ θέᾳ̣ ϝ̣ικ̣έ̣λαν ἀρι-
γνώτᾳ, σᾷ̤ δ̤ μάλιστ̣' ἔχαιρε μόλπᾳ      5
Νῦν δὲ Λύδαισ̣ι̣ν ἐ̤‹μ›πρ̤έ̤πεται γυνα̤ί̣-
κεσσ̤ι̣ν̣ ὤς ποτ' ἀε̣λίω̣
δύντος ἀ βροδοδάκ̤τυλος ‹σελάννα›
πάν̣τα πε‹ρ›ρέχοισ' ἄστρα φάος δ' ἐπί-
σχει θά̣λασσαν π' ἀλμύραν      10
ἴσως καὶ πολυανθέμοις ἀρούραι̤ς
ἀ δ' ‹ἐ›έρσα κάλα κέχυται, τεθά-
λαισι δ βρόδα κ̣ἄπαλ' ν-
θρυσκ̣α καὶ μελίλ̣ωτος ἀνθ̣ε̣μ̣ώδης
πόλλα δὲ ζαφο‹ί›ταισ' ἀγάνας̤ πι-      15
μνάσθεισ' Ἄτθιδος ἰμέ̤ρῳ
λ̣έπτα̣ν ‹π›οι φρένα̣ κ[ῆ]ρ̣'̤ ἄσᾳ βόρητα̣ι
κῆθ{υ}ι̣ δ̣' ἔ̤λ̤θην ἄμμ' ὄ̤ξ[υ] βό{οι}η τὸ {ο} δ' οὐ {δοου}
νῶν γ̤' ἄ[π]υστα νὺξ {[.] .} πολύω̣ς̤
γαρύε̣ι δ[ι'] ἄλος π[όρω]ν τὸ μέσσον      20
[ἔ]υ̤μ̤α̤ρ[ες μ]ν̣ ο̣ὐ̣κ̣ ἄμμι θέαι̤σ̣ι̤ μόρ-
φαν ἐπή̤[ρατ]ον ἐξίσω-
σθ̣' ἀι σὺ [ . . ]ρ̣ος ἔχησθ' Ἀ[δ]ωνίδηον
] . . . το[ . . . . ] . ρατι

Anyway, it's spoiler time!


Time to source and justify my completions.
  • Stanza 1 is just Edmonds.
  • It is hard to see a zeta in the papyrus, and most likely it had a weird shape or was another letter, but I believe it could have been a zeta. I mean that of ezoomen in l. 4.
  • From l. 5 to l. 17 the completions are so standard they are regarded as certain by Campbell and LP.
  • The rest follows Edmonds where possible.
  • Then ll. 22-23 are Campbell, I believe.
  • L. 24 is, AFAICT, my own.
Couple of notes now.
  • In l. 4, Edmonds reads ἆς, not ὠς, but I couldn't make sense of it so I followed BA. I now guess he thought of it as Aeolic for "ἔως", "in the time when, as long as, until".
  • Ll. 4-5 are problematic in general because l. 5 is generally read -σε θέᾳ σ' ἰκέλαν ἀρι- or -σε θέαισ' ἰκέλαν ἀρι-, whereas I see a likely enough digamma to follow Edmonds. Reading the other ways renders completions above impossible. The θέαισ' way, moreover, produces Ἀριγνώτα as a name in ll. 5-6, and is what GW and BA followed. Indeed, GW has the poem titled Ἀριγνώτα.
  • In l. 18, Edmonds reads κῆρ' ἄσᾳ, as in the papyrus, but that forces him to put ἰμέρω with Ἄτθιδος, and translate "remember Atthis' desire" or "remember Atthis with desire", whereas I like to see the structure parallelism of ἰμέρῳ - λέπταν φρένα with κῆρ - ἄσᾳ, a chiasm. The apostrophe is anyway doubtful in the papyrus. Campbell has κᾶρι σᾷ, another source online had κ[α]ρ[χάρῳ], and this is just counter-papyrus.
  • Next stanza is complex. Besides the reading mess of the first two lines (first one in particular), we have the alternative "νῶντ' ἄπυστά τ' ᾽Υμήναος", reported by safopoemas as Diehl's, which I dismissed as having the Hymenaeum totally out of place, and the alternative "απυστονυμ[..] πόλυς" drom Campbell, which is incompletable but certainly respects a possible reading of the papyrus. Edmonds has the problem of the dual νῷν, which is supposed to have been lost in Aeolic, but maybe Sappho was inspired by Homer to take it up? Also, in l. 21, the actual way to go is Campbell's "δι' ἄλος πόρων τὸ μέσσον". I originally rejected it as incomprehensible in favor of Edmonds' δι' ἄλος παρενρεοίσας, but luckily the translations all omit that part, meaning they work for both versions, so I just changed the text.
  • The last completed stanza has standard completions in the first two lines, and my own completion in the last one, and the χρό' is impossible because the papyrus contradicts it with ]ρος.
That said, I give you the LP vs. Voigt vs. Campbell comparison, part 1 and part 2, and end this note.
The rest of the poem is not completed in any way, and is the standard version save perhaps for reading a few extra monosyllabic words right after lacunas where others more prudently kept them tied to the lacunas. Except I just saw a ναν where I have λοϊα and a ἐδάην where I have like ησενη, so not really. Actually, there is one completion: the πόλλακις, which is because it's not impossible, and because of the translations. Also, Ἀδωνίδηον is apparently from an article by Edmonds (so says Campbell implicitly), and an alternative to "ἄμμι θέαισι" in l. 22 is "αἰμιθέαισι", which I dismissed since it lacks a dative of "for whom it's easy" and I saw no reason to mention demigoddesses instead of goddesses, and I still can't see any. Between the last edit of this and the checkup, I found this Italian anthology which has one more completion (or more if I don't recall correctly) in the part where nectar is mentioned. Won't include it here, but the text of that edition will end up as is in The Rest of Sappho in the group dedicated to stuff from said anthology, and in the Spanish, Chinese, and Modern Greek editions of Sappho.
Finally, I fixed the critical notation in Latin and English, which is crazy precise with even angled brackets mimicked, but didn't feel like bothering with the Italian. And that is it.

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